Soil and Groundwater Contamination at an Active Mine Site in Kwang Rayfield Jos Plateau State Using Electrical Resistivity and Heavy Metal Analysis
Publication Date : 01/06/2022
A 2-D electrical resistivity survey and heavy metal analysis was carried out at an mine site in Kwang Rayfield, Jos, Plateau state to investigate soil and groundwater contamination. This survey was carried out using the WennerSchlumberger configuration. The 2D electrical resistivity was carried out along three profiles; two profiles at the mine site and one profile taken far away from the mine site to serve as the control profile. The apparent resistivity data obtained was iteratively inverted using RES2DINV software to generate the 2D resistivity sections. Relatively low resistivity values within the subsurface of each profile followed the order Profile 1 > Profile 2> Profile 3. The results revealed that the subsurface beneath P2 is more resistive than P1 and this could be because there was no mining activity as of the time of the survey. Profile 3 revealed relatively high resistivity values at the top soil and it could be due to the pressure on the field as result of people playing football. The 2D electrical resistivity survey was able to show lateral and vertical resistivity variations beneath the profile and regions of low resistivity that indicate possible contamination subsurface material with metals. Contents of heavy metals in soil and water was determined using Xray Fluoroscopy machine and Atomic absorption spectrometer respectively. Heavy metal concentration in soil samples revealed the presence of heavy metals with the concentration of Strontium, Manganese, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Vanadium, Tin, and Nickel lower than the permissible limits. Some heavy metals were not detected in the soil samples; Nickel in S1; Copper, Chromium, Vanadium and Tin in S2; and Copper, Chromium, Vanadium, Uranium, Calcium, Potassium, Tin, and Nickel in S3. The heavy metal analysis on water samples revealed the presence of heavy metals with Lead concentration more than the permissible limit given by WHO (2017) and SON (2015); and Copper concentration more than the guideline limit given by SON (2015). The low resistivity observed in Profile 1 where active mining was taking place and the presence of these heavy metals indicates possible heavy metal contamination of water and soil (on the surface and within the subsurface) at the mine site.
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